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J Biol Chem. 2005 Jan 21;280(3):1808-16. Epub 2004 Nov 15.

Modeling of Galpha(s) and Galpha(i) regulation of human type V and VI adenylyl cyclase.

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Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


We examined the kinetics of Galpha(s) and Galpha(i) regulation of human type V and type VI adenylyl cyclase (AC V and AC VI) in order to better model interactions between AC and its regulators. Activation of AC VI by Galpha(s) displayed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, whereas AC V activation by Galpha(s) was cooperative with a Hill coefficient of 1.4. The basal activity of human AC V, but not that of AC VI, was inhibited by Galpha(i). Both enzymes showed greater inhibition by Galpha(i) at low Galpha(s) concentrations; however, human AC V was activated by Galpha(i) at high Galpha(s) concentrations. Neither regulator had an effect on the K(m) for Mg-ATP. Mutations made within the Galpha(s) binding pocket of AC V (N1090D) and VI (F1078S) displayed 6- and 14-fold greater EC(50) values for Galpha(s) activation but had no effect on Galpha(i) inhibition of basal activity or K(m) for Mg-ATP. Galpha(s)-stimulated AC VI-F1078S was not significantly inhibited by Galpha(i), despite normal inhibition by Galpha(i) upon forskolin stimulation. Mechanistic models for Galpha(s) and Galpha(i) regulation of AC V and VI were derived to describe these results. Our models are consistent with previous studies, predicting a decrease in affinity of Galpha(i) in the presence of Galpha(s). For AC VI, Galpha(s) is required for inhibition but not binding by Galpha(i). For AC V, binding of two molecules of Galpha(s) and Galpha(i) to an AC dimer are required to fully describe the data. These models highlight the differences between AC V and VI and the complex interactions with two important regulators.

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