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Clin Exp Immunol. 2004 Dec;138(3):466-75.

Differential expression of receptors for advanced glycation end-products in peritoneal mesothelial cells exposed to glucose degradation products.

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Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.


Autoclaving peritoneal dialysate fluid (PDF) degrades glucose into glucose degradation products (GDPs) that impair peritoneal mesothelial cell functions. While glycation processes leading to formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) were viewed commonly as being mediated by glucose present in the PDF, recent evidence indicates that certain GDPs are even more powerful inducers of AGE formation than glucose per se. In the present study, we examined the expression and modulation of AGE receptors on human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) cultured with GDPs, conventional PDF or PDF with low GDP content. HPMC cultured with GDPs differentially modulated AGE receptors (including RAGE, AGE-R1, AGE-R2 and AGE-R3) expression in a dose-dependent manner. At subtoxic concentrations, GDPs increased RAGE mRNA expression in HPMC. 2-furaldehyde (FurA), methylglyoxal (M-Glx) and 3,4-dideoxy-glucosone-3-Ene (3,4-DGE) increased the expression of AGE-R1 and RAGE, the receptors that are associated with toxic effects. These three GDPs up-regulated the AGE synthesis by cultured HPMC. In parallel, these GDPs also increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HPMC. PDF with lower GDP content exerted less cytotoxic effect than traditional heat-sterilized PDF. Both PDF preparations up-regulated the protein expression of RAGE and VEGF. However, the up-regulation of VEGF in HPMC following 24-h culture with conventional PDF was higher than values from HPMC cultured with PDF containing low GDP. We have demonstrated, for the first time, that in addition to RAGE, other AGE receptors including AGE-R1, AGE-R2 and AGE-R3 are expressed on HPMC. Different GDPs exert differential regulation on the expression of these receptors on HPMC. The interactions between GDPs and AGE receptors may bear biological relevance to the intraperitoneal homeostasis and membrane integrity.

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