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Immunity. 2004 Nov;21(5):693-706.

SAP regulates T(H)2 differentiation and PKC-theta-mediated activation of NF-kappaB1.

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National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


XLP is caused by mutations affecting SAP, an adaptor that recruits Fyn to SLAM family receptors. SAP-deficient mice recapitulate features of XLP, including increased T cell activation and decreased humoral responses post-infection. SAP-deficient T cells also show increased TCR-induced IFN-gamma and decreased T(H)2 cytokine production. We demonstrate that the defect in IL-4 secretion in SAP-deficient T cells is independent of increased IFN-gamma production. SAP-deficient cells respond normally to polarizing cytokines, yet show impaired TCR-mediated induction of GATA-3 and IL-4. Examination of TCR signaling revealed normal Ca(2+) mobilization and ERK activation in SAP-deficient cells, but decreased PKC-theta recruitment, Bcl-10 phosphorylation, IkappaB-alpha degradation, and nuclear NF-kappaB1/p50 levels. Similar defects were observed in Fyn-deficient cells. SLAM engagement amplified PKC-theta recruitment in wt but not SAP- or Fyn-deficient cells, arguing that a SAP/Fyn-mediated pathway enhances PKC-theta/NF-kappaB1 activation and suggesting a role for this pathway in T(H)2 regulation.

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