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Eur Heart J. 2004 Nov;25(21):1911-9.

An international perspective on heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction complicating myocardial infarction: the VALIANT registry.

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  • 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center and Duke Clinical Research Institute, P.O. Box 17969, Durham, NC 27715, USA.



We analysed the contemporary incidence, outcomes, and predictors of heart failure (HF) and/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) before discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The baseline presence of HF or LVSD, or its development during hospitalisation, increases short- and long-term risk after MI, yet its incidence, predictors, and outcomes have not been well described in a large, international, general MI population.


The VALIANT registry included 5573 consecutive MI patients at 84 hospitals in nine countries from 1999 to 2001. A multivariable logistic survival model was constructed using baseline variables to determine the adjusted mortality risk for those with in-hospital HF and/or LVSD. Baseline variables were also tested for associations with in-hospital HF and/or LVSD. Of the 5566 patients analysed, 42% had HF and/or LVSD during hospitalisation. Their in-hospital mortality rate was 13.0% compared with 2.3% for those without HF and/or without LVSD. After adjustment for other baseline risk factors, in-hospital HF and/or LVSD carried a hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality of 4.12 (95% confidence interval: 3.08-5.56). Patients with HF and/or LVSD also had disproportionately higher rates of other cardiovascular events.


HF and/or LVSD is common in the general contemporary MI population and precedes 80.3% of all in-hospital deaths after MI. Survivors of early MI-associated HF and/or LVSD have more complications, longer hospitalisations, and are more likely to die during hospitalisation. Although baseline variables can identify MI patients at highest risk for HF and/or LVSD, such patients are less likely to receive indicated procedures and medical therapies.

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