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Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;15(9):411-7.

Intranuclear organization and function of the androgen receptor.

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Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.


We have entered an exciting era for androgen-receptor (AR) research that should provide a detailed description of how the AR functions as a ligand-regulated transcription factor. That AR activity is regulated by subcellular compartmentalization was first established a decade ago with the finding that binding of androgen to the AR induces its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The contribution of compartmentalization to AR activity is, however, likely to extend beyond simple delivery to the nucleus. Defects in AR and coregulator compartmentalization in the nucleus have been demonstrated in prostate cancer, androgen-insensitivity syndrome, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. A complete understanding of AR function and dysfunction in disease requires integrating transcription with the spatial and temporal regulation imposed by subnuclear organization and nuclear transport.

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