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J Gene Med. 2005 Mar;7(3):316-24.

Myocardial gene transfer and long-term expression following intracoronary delivery of adeno-associated virus.

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The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.


Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) can direct long-term gene expression in post-mitotic cells. Previous studies have established that long-term cardiac gene transfer results from intramuscular injection into the heart. Cardiac gene transfer after direct intracoronary delivery of AAV in vivo, however, has been minimal in degree, and indirect intracoronary delivery, an approach used in an increasing number of studies, appears to be receiving more attention. To determine the utility of indirect intracoronary gene transfer of AAV, we used aortic and pulmonary artery cross clamping followed by proximal aortic injection of AAV encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV.EGFP) at 10(11) DNase resistant particles (drp; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-purified) per rat. Gene expression was quantified by fluorescent microscopy at four time points up to 1 year after vector delivery, revealing 20-32% transmural gene expression in the left ventricle at each time point. Histological analysis revealed little or no inflammatory response and levels of transgene expression were low in liver and undetectable in lung. In subsequent studies in pigs, direct intracoronary delivery into the left circumflex coronary artery of AAV.EGFP (2.64-5.28 x 10(13) drp; HPLC-purified) resulted in gene expression in 3 of 4 pigs 8 weeks following injection with no inflammatory response in the heart. PCR analysis confirmed AAV vector presence in the left circumflex perfusion bed. These data indicate that intracoronary delivery of AAV vector is associated with transgene expression in the heart, providing a means to obtain long-term expression of therapeutic genes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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