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Eur J Biochem. 2004 Nov;271(21):4307-19.

Salt-inducible kinase-1 represses cAMP response element-binding protein activity both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medicine (H-1), Osaka University, Japan.


Salt-inducible kinase-1 (SIK1) is phosphorylated at Ser577 by protein kinase A in adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated Y1 cells, and the phospho-SIK1 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The phospho-SIK1 is dephosphorylated in the cytoplasm and re-enters the nucleus several hours later. By using green-fluorescent protein-tagged SIK1 fragments, we found that a peptide region (586-612) was responsible for the nuclear localization of SIK1. The region was named the 'RK-rich region' because of its Arg- and Lys-rich nature. SIK1s mutated in the RK-rich region were localized mainly in the cytoplasm. Because SIK1 represses cAMP-response element (CRE)-mediated transcription of steroidogenic genes, the mutants were examined for their effect on transcription. To our surprise, the cytoplasmic mutants strongly repressed the CRE-binding protein (CREB) activity, the extent of repression being similar to that of SIK1(S577A), a mutant localized exclusively in the nucleus. Several chimeras were constructed from SIK1 and from its isoform SIK2, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, and they were examined for intracellular localization as well as CREB-repression activity. A SIK1-derived chimera, where the RK-rich region had been replaced with the corresponding region of SIK2, was found in the cytoplasm, its CREB-modulating activity being similar to that of wild-type SIK1. On the other hand, a SIK2-derived chimera with the RK-rich region of SIK1 was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and had a CREB-repressing activity similar to that of the wild-type SIK2. Green fluorescent protein-fused transducer of regulated CREB activity 2 (TORC2), a CREB-specific co-activator, was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of Y1 cells, and, after treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone, cytoplasmic TORC2 entered the nucleus, activating CREB. The SIK1 mutants, having a strong CRE-repressing activity, completely inhibited the adrenocorticotropic hormone-induced nuclear entry of green fluorescent protein-fused TORC2. This suggests that SIK1 may regulate the intracellular movement of TORC2, and as a result modulates the CREB-dependent transcription activity. Together, these results indicate that the RK-rich region of SIK1 is important for determining the nuclear localization and attenuating CREB-repressing activity, but the degree of the nuclear localization of SIK1 itself does not necessarily reflect the degree of SIK1-mediated CREB repression.

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