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J Endod. 2004 Nov;30(11):751-61.

Treatment outcome in endodontics-The Toronto Study. Phases I and II: apical surgery.

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Discipline of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


This study prospectively assessed the 4 to 8 yr outcome of apical surgery performed by graduate students in phases I and II of the Toronto Study. The study cohort included 155 teeth in 138 patients. Outcome was assessed by a blinded and calibrated examiner. Clinical and radiographic measures were used for a dichotomous outcome: healed (no signs and symptoms, Periapical Index score </= 2 or scar), or diseased (presence of signs and symptoms, or Periapical Index score >/= 3). The recall rate was 85% and the overall healed rate 74%. Healed rate was significantly higher for teeth with small (</= 5 mm) than larger preoperative lesions (chi, p = 0.02). Logistic Regression revealed an increased odds of disease persistence for teeth with larger preoperative lesions (OR = 3.81, CI = 1.2-12.1), and preoperative root-filling of adequate length (OR = 3.7, CI = 1.1-11.1). Preoperative lesion size and root-filling length were significant predictors of outcome of apical surgery.

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