Send to

Choose Destination
J Psychiatr Res. 2005 Jan;39(1):77-83.

Sex-specific self-reported mood changes by patients with bipolar disorder.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Room 2360, Palo Alto, CA 94305-5723, USA.



While the prevalence of bipolar disorder I is similar between men and women, the clinical course may differ. This study investigated if there are differences in the clinical presentation of bipolar disorder between the sexes.


Mood patterns were documented using ChronoRecord software for self-reporting. Patients entered mood, medications, sleep, life events and menstrual data daily acquired over the period of three months. 8662 Days of data were received from 80 patients: 3483 days from 35 men and 5179 days from 45 women.


The distribution of the time spent in mood categories differed between men and women (P<0.001). Men were depressed 17.0% of the time, euthymic 74.0% of the time and manic 5.6% of the time. Women were depressed 28.3% of the time, euthymic 64.2% of the time and manic 7.5% of the time. Over 80% of all reported symptoms for both sexes were mild. Women exhibited large mood fluctuations (greater than 10 in either direction on a 100-unit scale) more frequently than men. Most of the reproductive aged women (55%) reported significant mood changes across the menstrual cycle.


The clinical course of bipolar disorder differed between the sexes. Women reported depression and large fluctuations in mood more frequently than men. Women also experienced mood changes across the menstrual cycle.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center