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Osteoporos Int. 2005 Aug;16(8):914-20. Epub 2004 Oct 21.

Bone mineral density in Norwegian premenopausal women.

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The Norwegian University of Sports and Physical Education, UllevÄl Stadion, PO Box 4014, 0806 Oslo, Norway.


The aims of this study were: 1) to determine bone mineral density (BMD) in different age groups, 2) to determine the prevalence of low BMD, and 3) to determine the possible association between BMD and a number of risk factors in Norwegian premenopausal women. BMD of the lumbar spine (L(2)-L(4)), total body, and the hip (total femur, femur neck, and trochanter) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Prodigy, Lunar) in 145 randomly selected women aged 13-39 years. Information on other factors thought to influence BMD was obtained through questionnaire and a clinical interview. The group aged 25-29 years had the highest mean BMD in the total body, lumbar spine, and total femur while the group aged 13-19 years had the highest mean BMD in the femur neck and the trochanter. The mean BMD values of Norwegian premenopausal women were 3.4-5.1% higher than US/European reference data (P<0.05). Five percent of the study sample aged 20-39 years were defined with low BMD (Z-score <-2) using the standard values from this study. Weight-bearing physical activity, body weight, body height, and age were positively associated with BMD, whilst menstrual dysfunction and previous pregnancy were associated with lower BMD in some of the measurement sites. The results show that the factors associated with BMD are extensive, and the strategies to prevent low BMD have to be multifactorial. A follow-up study should be conducted on the study sample to investigate actual mean BMD values and BMD changes through time.

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