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Toxicon. 2004 Nov;44(6):597-608.

Potential effects of tetrodotoxin exposure to human glial cells postulated using microarray approach.

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Venom and Toxin Research Programme, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597.


Sodium channels play an important role in many neurological disorders and also in prostate cancer. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a blocker of voltage-gated sodium channels has been chiefly used as a molecular probe for the study and characterization of these channels. The regulation of gene expression in response for the exposure of TTX to glial cells which are reported to be involved in neurodegenerative process is poorly understood. Therefore, the present study aims to develop a repository of genes and map it on a few pivotal neurodegenerative pathways to speculate the effect of TTX. Using Affymetrix GeneChip (HG-U133A), we have selected a subset of 692 differentially expressed genes, several of which are-cullin 4A (CUL4A), ubiquitin carrier protein (E2-EPF), proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 8 (large multifunctional protease 7) (PSMB8), protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA (PTP4A1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and caspase 1 (CASP1). These genes, which facilitate some of the neurodegenerative pathways, such as ubiquitin, proteasome, inflammation and kinases, were identified to be up- or down-regulated for the TTX treatment. Thus, the selected genes were further examined on ubiquitin-proteasome mediated inflammatory responses pathway as ample evidence for the role of glial cell-mediated inflammation in the neurodegenerative process are available. In summary, our result provides a basic understanding of the differentially expressed genes along with one of the possible pathway which may have been modulated by the exposure of TTX.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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