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Exp Eye Res. 2004 Nov;79(5):613-21.

Tear film and ocular surface tests in animal models of dry eye: uses and limitations.

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Laboratory of Immunology, Schepens Eye Research Institute, 20 Staniford St, 02114 Boston, MA, USA.


Many ocular surface tests have been developed for the clinical diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and several have been used to 'validate' animal models of Sjogren's and non-Sjogren's dry eye. However, many of these tests themselves have not been systematically studied or standardized, and yet their use in animal models of dry eye is common. This review provides a rational approach and systematic review of the tear film and ocular surface tests described in the literature that may be applicable to the current animal models of dry eye, with particular emphasis on their limitations, along with some suggestions regarding their standardization and applications in eye research.

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