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J Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 15;190(10):1745-54. Epub 2004 Oct 19.

Deletion in the Shigella enterotoxin genes further attenuates Shigella flexneri 2a bearing guanine auxotrophy in a phase 1 trial of CVD 1204 and CVD 1208.

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  • 1Division of Infectious Disease and Tropical Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 15;191(12):2161.



We created a live, attenuated, oral Shigella vaccine by constructing a lineage of guanine auxotrophs and conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to ascertain (1) the attenuation profile of Delta guaBA Shigella flexneri 2a, which harbors deletions in the guanine nucleotide synthesis pathway (CVD 1204); (2) additional attenuation conferred by deletions in set and sen genes encoding Shigella enterotoxins (ShETs) 1 and 2, respectively (CVD 1208); and (3) the relative immunogenicity of these constructs.


Inpatient volunteers received a single oral dose of CVD 1204, CVD 1208 (10(7), 10(8), or 10(9) cfu), or placebo. Clinical, immunologic, and microbiologic responses were evaluated.


Reactogenicity occurred in 8 of 23 recipients of CVD 1204, characterized by diarrhea (30%), fever (22%), and/or dysentery (17%), but in only 1 (5%) of 21 recipients of CVD 1208 (brief fever) (P=.02, Fisher's exact test). Antilipopolysaccharide responses, as measured by antibody-secreting cell, serum, or fecal antibody levels, occurred in 67%, 71%, and 100% of recipients of CVD 1204 and in 86%, 43%, and 100% of recipients of CVD 1208 at doses of 10(7), 10(8), and 10(9) cfu, respectively.


We conclude that 1 or both ShETs are virulence determinants in humans; their inactivation, in combination with Delta guaBA, leads to a well-tolerated and immunogenic Shigella vaccine candidate.

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