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J Ambul Care Manage. 2004 Oct-Dec;27(4):348-55.

Empowering factors in repeat mammography: insights from the stories of underserved women.

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Departments of Internal Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tenn, USA.


Screening mammography can reduce breast cancer mortality. Although a significant percentage of underserved women obtain low income, minority mammograms regularly women underutilize mammography and rates of regular screening are also very low in the general population. By structuring focus groups around constructs from the Precede-Proceed Model, our study explored how these underserved women overcame barriers to be screened on a regular basis. Twenty-eight items were categorized as personal factors that helped them overcome the barriers: awareness and knowledge of risk factors (age and family history); knowledge and trust in early detection and treatment processes; personal responsibility about own health and well-being; and pride in self and satisfaction with one's own actions.

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