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Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2004 Nov;24(6):528-42.

Statistical normal values of visual parameters that characterize binocular function in children.

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Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, C/Campus Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.


A wide range of visual parameters used to evaluate binocular function were evaluated in a paediatric population (1056 subjects aged 6-12 years). Mean values are provided for these ages in optometric tests that directly assess the vergence system, horizontal phorias for near and far vision (measured by a modified version of the Thorington method), negative and positive vergence amplitude for near and far vision (step vergence testing), vergence facility (flippers 8 Delta BI/8 Delta BO), and near-point of convergence (penlight push-up technique and red-lens push-up technique), as well as stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio and stereoacuity (Randot test) which provide an overall evaluation of the vergence, accommodative and oculomotor systems. A statistical comparison (anova and Bonferroni post hoc test) of these values between ages was performed. The differences, although statistically significant, were not clinically meaningful, and therefore we identified two trends in the behaviour of these parameters. For all parameters, except for vergence facility, we established a single mean reference value for the age range studied. The difference between the means for vergence facility indicated the need to divide the population into two age ranges (6-8 and 8-12 years). This study establishes statistical normal values for these parameters in a paediatric population and their means are a valuable instrument for separating children with binocular anomalies from those with normal binocular vision.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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