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Kidney Int Suppl. 2004 Nov;(92):S111-4.

Framingham score and microalbuminuria: combined future targets for primary prevention?

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Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.



Risk assessment is the cornerstone of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic value of the Framingham score in microalbuminuric subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease and whether this risk score can predict the benefit of treatment with fosinopril or pravastatin.


Subjects were randomized to fosinopril 20 mg or matching placebo, and to pravastatin 40 mg or matching placebo (mean age 51 +/- 12 years, 65% men, N = 830). Prediction of 10-year risk for coronary heart disease by the Framingham score was performed using the risk factor categories with LDL cholesterol.


Albuminuria was correlated with Framingham score at baseline (P < 0.001). In the population with a Framingham risk score <20%, both albuminuria and Framingham risk score were independent predictors of the primary end point. A two-fold increase of albuminuria or the Framingham risk score was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.60 (95% CI 1.10-2.31), P = 0.013 and 3.00 (95% CI 1.40-6.44), P = 0.005, respectively. In contrast to fosinopril, pravastatin showed a significant beneficial effect on Framingham risk score after 4 years of follow-up (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the observed absolute risk reduction in cardiovascular events was greater than calculated by the Framingham risk score.


The Framingham score is useful in microalbuminuric subjects as a prognostic tool. In addition, when considering the risk score as a target of intervention, the beneficial effects of therapies might be underestimated. Combining the Framingham score with the level of urinary albumin excretion is suggested as a primary prevention strategy with higher efficiency.

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