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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Nov 1;37(3):1358-66.

Comparison of two indinavir/ritonavir regimens in the treatment of HIV-infected individuals.

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  • 1Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019, USA.



Pharmacokinetic enhancement of protease inhibitors (PIs) with low-dose ritonavir (RTV) for salvage therapy is increasingly common. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of indinavir (IDV)/RTV at 800/200 mg (arm A) and 400/400 mg (arm B) administered twice daily in HIV-infected subjects failing their first PI-based regimen.


A phase I/II, randomized, open-label, 24-week study was conducted. Formal 12-hour pharmacokinetic evaluations were performed, and study visits occurred at baseline; at weeks 1, 2, and 4; and every 4 week thereafter for 24 weeks. Clinical symptoms and laboratory assessments were collected. Subjects were allowed to switch arms because of toxicity.


Forty-four subjects were enrolled (22 per arm). IDV predose concentration, maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve were significantly higher in arm A. Fifty-five percent and 45% of subjects in arms A and B responded (<200 copies/mL at week 24; P = 0.76), respectively. CD4 cell responses were similar. All subjects had IDV-sensitive virus at baseline and at virologic failure. Tolerability was comparable, but all grade 3 or higher triglyceride increases occurred in arm B and more subjects in arm B switched because of toxicity (5 vs. 1 triglyceride increases).


This is the largest formal pharmacokinetic evaluation of 2 dosage combinations of IDV/RTV in HIV-infected individuals. Pharmacokinetic parameters were consistent with previous results in patients but lower than in seronegative controls. Both regimens exhibited similar tolerability and response rates. High toxicity with a low response suggests that the optimum IDV/RTV combination would include an RTV dose <400 mg and an IDV dose <800 mg in this population.

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