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Fertil Steril. 2004 Oct;82(4):799-804.

Can endometrial infection/inflammation explain implantation failure, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth after in vitro fertilization?

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Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Development, National Institutes of Health/Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.


The endometrial cavity is frequently invaded by microorganisms, and subclinical endometrial infection or inflammation may play a role in implantation failure after IVF, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. Microbial products and host-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines can cause trophoblast apoptosis and the cascade of events leading to expulsion of the embryo or fetus.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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