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Ann Anat. 2004 Aug;186(4):323-30.

Correlation analysis of the skull and long bone measurements of the dog.

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Istanbul University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Anatomy, 34320, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey.


In this study, a heterogeneous population of 42 dogs was examined for correlation between skull and long bone measurements. For this purpose, 17 craniometric measurements were carried out and used to calculate 12 indices and ratios. These indices and ratios were then subjected to a correlation analysis with long bone measurements. While a high significant negative correlation of p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively was found for skull, cranial and facial I1, I2, LLI-2, BI and BI-1 indices, and the CFO and CFO-1 ratios respectively with respect to the non-indexed long bone measurements, a high positive correlation was found to exist between those indices and ratios, and the long bone indices (p < 0.01). The correlation coefficients for the skull indices and ratios to long bone measurements proved to be very similar for the long bones of front and hind legs. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was found that with an increase in skull tendency towards the dolichocephalic type, the long bone parameters also increase, while with the skull tending towards the brachycephalic type, the long bone parameters decrease. This finding of a long bone-related increase in dimensions and morphological skull expression favours the assumption of a close relation to the skull typology.

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