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Clin Liver Dis. 2004 May;8(2):445-60, viii.

Hepatitis B virus infection: co-infection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

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Division of Gastroenterology, New York University School of Medicine, 650 1st Avenue, 3rd floor, New York, NY 10016, USA.


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) shares routes of transmission, namely exchange of infected body fluids, sharing of contaminated needles, and blood transfusion, with other hepatotropic viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) and with systemic retroviral infections, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, many HBV infected patients are co-infected with other viral pathogens. Co-infection appears to increase the risk of progression of liver disease and may have important ramifications on choice of antiviral medication and treatment regimen. This article reviews the current knowledge of co-infection of HBV with HCV, HDV, and HIV.

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