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Cancer. 2004 Dec 15;101(12):2788-801.

Long-term follow-up results of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD), a dose-intensive regimen, in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia.

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Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.



Modern intensive chemotherapy regimens have improved the prognosis for patients with adult acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). With these regimens, the complete response rates are now reported to be > 80%, and the long-term survival rates range from 30% to 45%. The current analysis updated the long-term results with the original hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD) program, with a median follow-up time of 63 months.


Between 1992 and 2000, 288 patients were treated with Hyper-CVAD. The median age of the patients was 40 years, and 59 patients (20%) were > or = age 60 years. The incidence of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive ALL was 17%, and the incidence of of T-cell ALL was 13%.


A complete response (CR) was achieved in 92% of patients. The induction mortality rate was 5% (2% if the patient's age was < 60 years, and 15% if the patient's age was > or = 60 years). With a median follow-up time of 63 months, the 5-year survival rate was 38% and the 5-year CR duration rate was 38%. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for CR duration identified the following adverse factors: age > or = 45 years, leukocytosis > or = 50 x 10(9)/L, poor performance status (an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 3-4), Ph-positive disease, French-American-British L2 morphology, > 1 course to achieve CR, and Day 14 bone marrow blasts > 5%. Patients were divided into low-risk (risk score 0-1; 37%), intermediate risk (risk score 2-3; 36%), and poor-risk groups (risk score > or = 4; 27%) with 5-year CR duration rates of 52%, 37%, and 10%, respectively.


Compared with the previous VAD regimens, Hyper-CVAD was associated with significantly better CR rates, CR duration, and survival. The long-term follow-up results of Hyper-CVAD were favorable. Comparison of Hyper-CVAD with other established adult ALL regimens is warranted.

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