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Mutat Res. 2004 Nov 2;555(1-2):81-96.

Signaling pathways in retinoid chemoprevention and treatment of cancer.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, 1542 Spring Valley Drive, Huntington, WV 25704, USA.


The Vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, has been shown to have chemopreventive and therapeutic activity for certain cancers such as head and neck, cervical, neuroblastoma and promyelocytic leukemia. Retinoic acid achieves these activities by inducing differentiation and/or growth arrest. A large number of studies have investigated the mechanism(s) by which retinoic acid alters the behavior of premalignant and tumor cells. Although much important data has been obtained, the exact signaling pathways required for retinoic acid to exert its biological effects remains elusive. In this review, we outline the role and function of retinoid nuclear receptors, followed by a discussion of how major signaling pathways are affected in different tumor types by retinoids. We conclude by examining the effect of retinoic acid on G1 cell cycle regulatory proteins in various tumors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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