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Int J Nurs Stud. 2004 Nov;41(8):891-9.

Rigor in cross-cultural nursing research.

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School of Nursing, University of Texas at Austin, 1700 Red River, Austin, TX 78701, USA.


With the increasing number of cross-cultural nursing studies, many scholars have suggested methods for conducting cross-cultural research. However, rigor in cross-cultural research has rarely been addressed. In this paper, five evaluation criteria for rigor in cross-cultural nursing research are proposed based on a review of the literature related to cross-cultural research published from 1965 to 2003. The proposed evaluation criteria include: (a) cultural relevance; (b) contextuality; (c) appropriateness; (d) mutual respect; and (e) flexibility. We advocate that these evaluation criteria be used to ensure rigor of cross-cultural nursing research, whether quantitative or qualitative work.

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