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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Oct 8;53(39):911-5.

Smoking during pregnancy--United States, 1990-2002.


Cigarette smoking during pregnancy adversely affects the health of both mother and child. The risk for adverse maternal conditions (e.g., premature rupture of membranes, abruptio placentae, and placenta previa) and poor pregnancy outcomes (e.g., neonatal mortality and stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome) is increased by maternal smoking. Infants born to mothers who smoke weigh less than other infants, and low birthweight (<2,500 grams) is a key predictor for infant mortality. Infertility and conception delay also might be elevated by smoking. National health objectives for 2010 target an increase in cessation to 30% among pregnant smokers during the first trimester and abstinence from cigarettes by 99% of women giving birth. To assess progress toward these goals, CDC analyzed state-specific trends in maternal smoking during 1990-2002 by using data collected on birth certificates. This report summarizes the results of those analyses, which indicated that whereas participating areas observed a significant decline in maternal smoking during the surveillance period, 10 states reported recent increases in smoking by pregnant teens. Although the widespread public health message to abstain from smoking during pregnancy has helped decrease maternal smoking, to reduce prevalence further, implementation of additional interventions are required.

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