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Arch Intern Med. 1992 Mar;152(3):523-8.

A comparison of the effectiveness of three regimens in the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

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1
Department of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of morbidity and the leading cause of death in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The prevention of the occurrence and recurrence of PCP is a cornerstone in the treatment of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. There are few studies comparing PCP prophylactic regimens.

METHODS:

The efficacy of three regimens for prophylaxis against PCP was assessed in a retrospective chart review of 211 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients at risk for the disease. Over the course of the 2-year study period, 133 patients were prescribed trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (one double-strength tablet twice a day, thrice weekly) for a mean of 7.4 months (range, 1 to 25 months). Seventy-seven patients received dapsone (50 mg daily) for a mean of 5.7 months (range, 1 to 23 months), and 125 patients received aerosolized pentamidine (300 mg via nebulizer once monthly) for a mean of 9.3 months (range, 1 to 21 months). The majority of patients (62%) received primary prophylaxis; 38% had one or more previous episodes of PCP; and 73% were receiving concomitant antiretroviral therapy.

RESULTS:

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia did not develop in any patient receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 981 patient-months. Five patients receiving dapsone for 437 patient-months and 17 patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine for 1166 patient-months developed PCP. Fifty-six percent of the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and 55% of the dapsone group changed drug due to adverse reactions, while only 2% in the aerosolized pentamidine group required drug change.

CONCLUSION:

Despite its adverse reaction profile, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the most effective agent to prevent the occurrence and recurrence of PCP.

PMID:
1546914
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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