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Nucleic Acids Res. 2004 Oct 5;32(17):5260-79. Print 2004.

Comparative genomics of the FtsK-HerA superfamily of pumping ATPases: implications for the origins of chromosome segregation, cell division and viral capsid packaging.

Author information

1
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA.

Abstract

Recently, it has been shown that a predicted P-loop ATPase (the HerA or MlaA protein), which is highly conserved in archaea and also present in many bacteria but absent in eukaryotes, has a bidirectional helicase activity and forms hexameric rings similar to those described for the TrwB ATPase. In this study, the FtsK-HerA superfamily of P-loop ATPases, in which the HerA clade comprises one of the major branches, is analyzed in detail. We show that, in addition to the FtsK and HerA clades, this superfamily includes several families of characterized or predicted ATPases which are predominantly involved in extrusion of DNA and peptides through membrane pores. The DNA-packaging ATPases of various bacteriophages and eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses also belong to the FtsK-HerA superfamily. The FtsK protein is the essential bacterial ATPase that is responsible for the correct segregation of daughter chromosomes during cell division. The structural and evolutionary relationship between HerA and FtsK and the nearly perfect complementarity of their phyletic distributions suggest that HerA similarly mediates DNA pumping into the progeny cells during archaeal cell division. It appears likely that the HerA and FtsK families diverged concomitantly with the archaeal-bacterial division and that the last universal common ancestor of modern life forms had an ancestral DNA-pumping ATPase that gave rise to these families. Furthermore, the relationship of these cellular proteins with the packaging ATPases of diverse DNA viruses suggests that a common DNA pumping mechanism might be operational in both cellular and viral genome segregation. The herA gene forms a highly conserved operon with the gene for the NurA nuclease and, in many archaea, also with the orthologs of eukaryotic double-strand break repair proteins MRE11 and Rad50. HerA is predicted to function in a complex with these proteins in DNA pumping and repair of double-stranded breaks introduced during this process and, possibly, also during DNA replication. Extensive comparative analysis of the 'genomic context' combined with in-depth sequence analysis led to the prediction of numerous previously unnoticed nucleases of the NurA superfamily, including a specific version that is likely to be the endonuclease component of a novel restriction-modification system. This analysis also led to the identification of previously uncharacterized nucleases, such as a novel predicted nuclease of the Sir2-type Rossmann fold, and phosphatases of the HAD superfamily that are likely to function as partners of the FtsK-HerA superfamily ATPases.

PMID:
15466593
PMCID:
PMC521647
DOI:
10.1093/nar/gkh828
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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