Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004 Oct;14(5):629-35.

Biophysical models of fMRI responses.

Author information

The Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK.


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to investigate where the neural implementation of specific cognitive processes occurs. The standard approach uses linear convolution models that relate experimentally designed inputs, through a haemodynamic response function, to observed blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals. Such models are, however, blind to the causal mechanisms that underlie observed BOLD responses. Recent developments have focused on how BOLD responses are generated and include biophysical input-state-output models with neural and haemodynamic state equations and models of functional integration that explain local dynamics through interactions with remote areas. Forward models with parameters at the neural level, such as dynamic causal modelling, combine both approaches, modelling the whole causal chain from external stimuli, via induced neural dynamics, to observed BOLD responses.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center