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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Oct 6;44(7):1510-20.

Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor inducer on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction.

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Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.



We sought to determine the influence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induction on post-myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling, especially in relation to the inflammatory response and myocardial fibrosis.


Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor modifies wound healing by promoting monocytopoiesis and infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into injured tissue; however, the effect of GM-CSF induction on the infarct healing process and myocardial fibrosis is unclear.


A model of MI was produced in Wistar rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. The MI animals were randomized to receive GM-CSF inducer (romurtide 200 microg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days) (MI/Ro) or saline (MI/C).


Echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies on day 14 revealed increased left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic dimension, decreased fractional shortening, elevated LV end-diastolic pressure, and decreased LV maximum rate of isovolumic pressure development in MI/Ro compared with MI/C. Immunoblotting showed that expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in the infarcted site on day 3 after MI was decreased in MI/Ro compared with MI/C. In the infarcted site, TGF-beta1, collagen type I and type III messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression on day 3, and collagen content on day 7 were reduced in MI/Ro compared with MI/C, in association with marked infarct expansion. In MI/Ro, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA level and the degree of infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages (ED-1-positive)were greater in the infarcted site on day 7 than those in MI/C.


The GM-CSF induction by romurtide facilitated infarct expansion in association with the promotion of monocyte recruitment and inappropriate collagen synthesis in the infarcted region during the early phase of MI.

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