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J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2004 Oct;30(5):873-88.

Contributions of oral and extraoral facial movement to visual and audiovisual speech perception.

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MRC Institute of Hearing Research, University Park, Nottingham, England.


Seeing a talker's face influences auditory speech recognition, but the visible input essential for this influence has yet to be established. Using a new seamless editing technique, the authors examined effects of restricting visible movement to oral or extraoral areas of a talking face. In Experiment 1, visual speech identification and visual influences on identifying auditory speech were compared across displays in which the whole face moved, the oral area moved, or the extraoral area moved. Visual speech influences on auditory speech recognition were substantial and unchanging across whole-face and oral-movement displays. However, extraoral movement also influenced identification of visual and audiovisual speech. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that these results are dependent on intact and upright facial contexts, but only with extraoral movement displays.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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