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Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2004 Dec;18(4):703-17.

Strategies for postoperative pain management.

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Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Carnegie 280, 600 North Waite Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.


Despite advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of nociception, postoperative pain continues to be undertreated. There are many modalities that may provide effective postoperative analgesia, including systemic (e.g. opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents) and regional analgesic options. The particular modality or modalities utilized for a particular patient will depend on the risk-benefit profile and patient preferences. Ideally, analgesic options should be incorporated into a multimodal approach to facilitate patient recovery after surgery.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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