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Nat Rev Immunol. 2004 Oct;4(10):775-86.

The multifaceted roles of TRAFs in the regulation of B-cell function.

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Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, Veterans' Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.


Tumour-necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factors (TRAFs) are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that are important in lymphocyte activation and apoptosis. Many studies of TRAFs have used models of exogenous overexpression by non-lymphoid cells. However, the actions of TRAFs present at normal levels in lymphoid cells often differ considerably from those that have been established in non-lymphocyte overexpression models. As I discuss here, information obtained from studying these molecules in physiological settings in B cells reveals that they have several roles, which are both unique and overlapping. These include activation of kinases and transcription factors, and interactions with other signalling proteins, culminating in the induction or inhibition of biological functions.

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