Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Stroke. 2004 Nov;35(11 Suppl 1):2676-9. Epub 2004 Sep 30.

Delayed adaptation of the heart to stress: late preconditioning.

Author information

Division of Cardiology and the Institute of Molecular Cardiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA.


The early phase of preconditioning (PC) lasts 2 to 3 hours and protects against myocardial infarction, but not against stunning. In contrast, the late phase of PC lasts for 3 to 4 days and protects against both myocardial stunning and infarction, making this phenomenon more clinically relevant. Late PC is a genetic reprogramming of the heart that involves the activation of several stress-responsive genes, which ultimately results in the development of a cardioprotective phenotype. Sublethal ischemic insults release chemical signals (nitric oxide [NO], adenosine, and reactive oxygen species) that trigger a series of signaling events (eg, activation of protein kinase C, Src protein tyrosine kinases, Janus kinases 1/2, and nuclear factor-kappaB) and culminates in increased synthesis of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, heme oxygenase-1, aldose reductase, Mn superoxide dismutase, and probably other cardioprotective proteins. In addition to ischemia, heat stress, exercise, and cytokines can also induce a similar series of events. Perhaps most importantly, many pharmacologic agents (eg, NO donors, adenosine receptor agonists, endotoxin derivatives, or opioid receptor agonists) can mimic the effects of ischemia in inducing the late phase of PC, suggesting that this phenomenon might be exploited therapeutically. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanisms that underlie the late phase of ischemic PC.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center