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J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Feb;19(2):139-44.

Rationale and design of a study comparing two fixed-dose combination regimens to reduce albuminuria in patients with type II diabetes and hypertension.

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Department of Preventive and Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.


Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The early stage of nephropathy is manifested by the presence of low levels of urinary albumin (microalbuminuria or urinary albumin excretion >or=30 and <299 mg/day). Albuminuria is a marker for development of nephropathy in type II diabetes and for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of antihypertensive agents that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system to reduce the risk and slow down the progression of renal disease. A new clinical trial, GUARD (Gauging Albuminuria Reduction With Lotrel in Diabetic Patients With Hypertension), is designed to compare the change in urinary albumin to creatinine ratio after 1 year of initial treatment with either amlodipine besylate/benazepril HCl or benazepril HCl/hydrochlorothiazide. Other objectives include a comparison of the proportion of patients who progress to overt diabetic nephropathy and the safety of these two combination therapies in these high-risk patients.

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