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J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 3;279(49):51376-85. Epub 2004 Sep 29.

Physical and functional interaction between Dorfin and Valosin-containing protein that are colocalized in ubiquitylated inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8500, Japan.


Dorfin, a RING-IBR type ubiquitin ligase (E3), can ubiquitylate mutant superoxide dismutase 1, the causative gene of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Dorfin is located in ubiquitylated inclusions (UBIs) in various neurodegenerative disorders, such as ALS and Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we report that Valosin-containing protein (VCP) directly binds to Dorfin and that VCP ATPase activity profoundly contributes to the E3 activity of Dorfin. High through-put analysis using mass spectrometry identified VCP as a candidate of Dorfin-associated protein. Glycerol gradient centrifugation analysis showed that endogenous Dorfin consisted of a 400-600-kDa complex and was co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous VCP. In vitro experiments showed that Dorfin interacted directly with VCP through its C-terminal region. These two proteins were colocalized in aggresomes in HEK293 cells and UBIs in the affected neurons of ALS and PD. VCP(K524A), a dominant negative form of VCP, reduced the E3 activity of Dorfin against mutant superoxide dismutase 1, whereas it had no effect on the autoubiquitylation of Parkin. Our results indicate that VCPs functionally regulate Dorfin through direct interaction and that their functional interplay may be related to the process of UBI formation in neurodegenerative disorders, such as ALS or PD.

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