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J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2000 Autumn;5(4):337-48.

The Stanford Achievement Test, 9th Edition: National Norming and Performance Standards for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students.

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Gallaudet Research Institute, 800 Florida Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20002(e-mail:


This article presents a rich context of information for interpreting Stanford Achievement Test scores and for describing the achievement of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. The publisher's national norming of the Stanford Achievement Test provides a context of actual performance of hearing students. The publisher's Performance Standards provide a context of expectations for hearing students as determined by a panel of experts. The Gallaudet Research Institute's norming of the test on a national sample of deaf and hard-of-hearing students provides a context of test performance by this special population. A smaller subsample of the deaf and hard-of-hearing students who take the same test levels as hearing students provides an additional reference group with respect to the Performance Standards. Information from these sources is brought together into two graphical contexts to address these questions: Can the normative data from the publisher's national standardization of the test with hearing students, and the normative data from the GRI's national norming of the test with deaf and hard-of-hearing students provide a useful context for the interpretation of individual test scores? Can they provide a useful way to examine achievement of groups of students? Can the new Performance Standards defined by the test publisher offer a useful context for test score interpretation for high-achieving deaf and hard-of-hearing students?


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