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J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 6;52(20):6243-9.

Relationship between procyanidin and flavor contents of cocoa liquors from different origins.

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Unité de Brasserie et des Industries Alimentaires, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 2/Bte7, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.


The flavor of eight cocoa liquors of different origins (Africa, America, and Asia) and different varieties (Fine grades: criollo, trinitario, and nacional. Bulk-basic grade: forastero.) was analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-MS). Their procyanidin contents were quantified by HPLC-UV (280 nm). Fine varieties with short fermentation processes proved to contain more procyanidins, while criollo from New Guinea and forastero beans showed the highest aroma levels. The levels of cocoa aroma compounds formed during roasting are shown to vary directly with bean fermentation time and inversely with residual procyanidin content in cocoa liquor. Measurement of antioxidant activity in cocoa liquor proved to be a useful tool for assessing residual polyphenols.

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