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J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 6;52(20):6228-32.

Phototransformation of carboxin in water. Toxicity of the pesticide and its sulfoxide to aquatic organisms.

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Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Biochimica, Università Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia 4, I-80126 Naples, Italy.


Sunlight exposure of aqueous suspensions of carboxin (1) causes its phototransformation to sulfoxide 2 and minor components. Similar effects are observed in the presence of humic acid or nitrate or at different pH values. Photoproducts 2-9 were isolated by chromatographic techniques and/or identified by spectroscopic means. Carboxin 1 and its main photoproduct sulfoxide 2 were tested to evaluate acute toxicity to primary consumers typical of the aquatic environment: the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and two crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus. Chronic tests comprised a producer, the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and a consumer, the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia.

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