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Biomaterials. 2005 Apr;26(10):1097-108.

Theoretical analysis of calcium phosphate precipitation in simulated body fluid.

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  • 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Abstract

The driving force and nucleation rate of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) precipitation in simulated body fluid (SBF) were analyzed based on the classical crystallization theory. SBF supersaturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HA), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and dicalcium phosphate (DCPD) was carefully calculated, considering all the association/dissociation reactions of related ion groups in SBF. The nucleation rates of Ca-P were calculated based on a kinetics model of heterogeneous nucleation. The analysis indicates that the nucleation rate of OCP is substantially higher than that of HA, while HA is most thermodynamically stable in SBF. The difference in nucleation rates between HA and OCP reduces with increasing pH in SBF. The HA nucleation rate is comparable with that of OCP when the pH value approaches 10. DCPD precipitation is thermodynamically impossible in normal SBF, unless calcium and phosphate ion concentrations of SBF increase. In such case, DCPD precipitation is the most likely because of its highest nucleation rates among Ca-P phases. We examined the influences of different SBF recipes, interfacial energies, contact angle and molecular volumes, and found that the parameter variations do not have significant impacts on analysis results. The effects of carbonate incorporation and calcium deficiency in HA were also estimated with available data. Generally, such apatite precipitations are more kinetically favorable than HA.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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