Send to

Choose Destination
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2004 Sep;24(9):543-52.

TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation differentially induce cytokine secretion in human neonatal, adult, and murine mononuclear cells.

Author information

Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 signaling may induce differential secretion of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines, potentially influencing the development of autoimmune or atopic diseases. To date, the influence of the type of stimulus, timing, and dose of TLR2 and TLR4 ligands on cytokine secretion has not been well established. We tested whether the innate stimuli peptidoglycan (Ppg, TLR2 agonist) and lipid A (LpA, TLR4 agonist) differentially affect the secretion of interleukin-13 (IL-13) (Th2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (Th1). Further, we examined the influence of the maturity of the immune system, species, dose, and timing of stimuli in human cord and adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and murine cells in vitro and in vivo. Stimulation with Ppg induced the secretion of both IL-13 and IFN-gamma, influenced by time and dose in neonates, adults, and mice. In contrast, stimulation with LpA induced primarily time-independent and dose-independent production of IFN-gamma. Pulmonary administration of Ppg in vivo in mice resulted in secretion of IL-13, whereas administration of LpA resulted in secretion of IFN-gamma in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Therefore, TLR2 and TLR4 stimuli differentially influence IL-13 and IFN-gamma secretion in neonates, adults, and mice, supporting a critical role for innate stimuli in the modulation of cytokine responses.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center