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J Cell Physiol. 2005 Feb;202(2):608-22.

Studies of the roles of ADP-ribosylation factors and phospholipase D in phorbol ester-induced membrane ruffling.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.


In this study, we have explored the roles of ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes, and arfaptins in phorbol ester (PMA)-induced membrane ruffling in HeLa cells. PMA stimulation induced ruffling and translocated cortactin to the plasma membrane. The cortactin translocation was inhibited by dominant negative (DN)-ARF6, DN-ARF1, and DN-Rac1, but not by DN-RhoA and DN-Cdc42. The inability of DN-forms of ARF6, ARF1, and Rac1 to affect PLD activity in response to PMA indicated that this enzyme was not activated via these small G proteins and that its activation was not essential for the induction of ruffling. Endogenous-ARF1, -ARF6, and -Rac1 existed in the ruffling region along with cortactin after PMA stimulation. DN-ARF1 had no effect on the ruffling induced by DA-ARF6 or DA-Rac1, and DN-ARF6 had no effect on that induced by DA-ARF1 or DA-Rac1. On the other hand DN-Rac1 suppressed the effect of DA-ARF6 but not that of DA-ARF1. These results suggest that PMA causes membrane ruffling via an ARF6-Rac1 pathway and also an ARF1 pathway operating in parallel. Overexpression of PLD1 and PLD2 inhibited PMA-induced cortactin translocation and actin-cortactin complex formation, supporting the view that these enzymes are not required for ruffling, but actually suppress it. We conclude that PMA-induced membrane ruffling is caused via ARF6-Rac1 and ARF1 pathways operating in parallel and that PLD may be inhibitory.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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