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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Oct;48(10):3905-11.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors block toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-Induced NF-kappaB activation.

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1
Department of Pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Room 4220, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. ozlem.equils@cshs.org

Abstract

Coinfections with opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication through microbial antigen activation of NF-kappaB. Here, we assessed whether HIV type 1 protease inhibitors (PI) block microbial antigen activation of NF-kappaB. Human microvessel endothelial cells were transiently transfected with either endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion molecule NF-kappaB luciferase or interleukin 6 (IL-6) promoter luciferase constructs by using FuGENE 6, and they were treated with PI (nelfinavir, ritonavir, or saquinavir) prior to stimulation with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 ligands, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble Mycobacterium tuberculosis factor, or Staphylococcus epidermidis phenol-soluble modulin, respectively, or with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Luciferase activity was measured by using a Promega luciferase kit. TNF-alpha release from the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell death was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. We observed that PI pretreatment blocked the TLR2- and TLR4- as well as the TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation, in a dose-dependent manner. PI pretreatment also blocked the LPS-induced IL-6 promoter transactivation and TNF-alpha secretion. These data suggest that PI block HIV replication not only by inhibiting the HIV protease but also by blocking the TLR- and TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. These findings may help explain the immunomodulatory effects of PI, and they suggest an advantage for PI-containing drug regimens in the treatment of HIV-infected patients who are coinfected with opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria.

PMID:
15388451
PMCID:
PMC521905
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.48.10.3905-3911.2004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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