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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Oct;48(10):3789-93.

Increasing prevalence of quinolone resistance in human nontyphoid Salmonella enterica isolates obtained in Spain from 1981 to 2003.

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Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Donostia, Paseo Dr. Beguiristain s/n, 20014 San Sebastián, Spain.


From January 1981 to December 2003, susceptibility to nalidixic acid was tested in 10,504 nontyphoid Salmonella enterica isolates from patients with acute enteric disease in Gipuzkoa, Spain. The prevalence of nalidixic acid resistance steadily increased from less than 0.5% before 1991 to 38.5% in 2003, mainly due to the increase in resistance among isolates of the most prevalent serovar, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. For nalidixic acid-resistant isolates, the ciprofloxacin MIC was eightfold higher than that for susceptible isolates, and the nalidixic acid-resistant isolates contained a single point mutation in the gyrA gene (at codons for Ser83 or Asp87). The same mutations were found in a sample of nalidixic acid-resistant nontyphoid Salmonella strains isolated between 1999 and 2003 from retail food for human consumption. In 2003, we identified five S. enterica serovar Typhimurium clinical isolates with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance (ciprofloxacin MIC, 16 microg/ml) with two point mutations in the gyrA gene (coding for Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Asn) and one point mutation in the parC gene (coding for Ser80-->Arg). Strict sanitary controls are needed to avoid the spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant serovar Typhimurium isolates, and a more efficient veterinary policy must be adopted to decrease the large burden of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis infections in humans in our region.

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