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J Nat Prod. 2004 Sep;67(9):1496-506.

Nodulisporic acids D-F: structure, biological activities, and biogenetic relationships.

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Merck Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 2000, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA.


Nodulisporic acids D, E, and F are the newest members of a family of nontremorogenic indole-diterpenoids that are potent, orally bioavailable, antiflea agents derived from a fungus belonging to the genus Nodulisporium. The four members of the D series are each devoid of an isoprene residue that is present at C-26 in the three nodulisporic acids described originally (the A series). Nodulisporic acid E (11a) has a simpler structure, which lacks not only the isoprene residue at C-26 but also two that form the A/B rings. Nodulisporic acid F is the simplest of all nodulisporic acids and is devoid of all three isoprene residues of the indole unit; as such, it represents the earliest biosynthetic intermediate in this series. A biogenetic grid based on mutation studies is proposed that encompasses all the known nodulisporic acids. Structure-activity relationships of the known natural nodulisporic acids have been elucidated. Within a series the most active compound possesses a dienoic acid chain, and overall, the end product of the biogenetic grid, i.e., nodulisporic acid A, exhibits the most potent antiflea activity. Additionally, the stereochemistries of C-3' ' and C-4' ' of nodulisporic acid D(2) and therefore of nodulisporic acids A(2), B(2), and C(2) have been assigned.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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