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Ambio. 2004 Aug;33(6):344-9.

Resilience and vulnerability of northern regions to social and environmental change.

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  • 1Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA.


The arctic tundra and boreal forest were once considered the last frontiers on earth because of their vast expanses remote from agricultural land-use change and industrial development. These regions are now, however, experiencing environmental and social changes that are as rapid as those occurring anywhere on earth. This paper summarizes the role of northern regions in the global system and provides a blueprint for assessing the factors that govern their sensitivity to social and environmental change.

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