Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;43(10):1267-75.

Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change of ADHD symptoms between 8 and 13 years of age: a longitudinal twin study.

Author information

1
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, The Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms between 8 and 9 and 13 and 14 years of age.

METHOD:

The sample included 1,480 twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. At wave 1 in 1994, when twins were 8-9 years old, 1,106 (75%) of the parents responded to a mailed questionnaire, and at wave 2 when the twins were 13-14 years old, 1,063 (73%) responded. A checklist with 14 items based on the 14 DSM-III-R symptoms for ADHD was completed. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

RESULTS:

A relatively high stability of ADHD symptoms over this 5-year period was found. This continuity was mainly due to the same genetic effects operating at both points in time. Change in symptoms between childhood and early adolescence was to a large extent due to new genetic effects in early adolescence but also due to new nonshared environmental effects that became important during adolescence.

CONCLUSIONS:

The genetic stability highlights the importance of the continuing search for genes and endophenotypes of ADHD.

Comment in

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center