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Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2004;55:263-88.

Decoding Ca(2+) signals through plant protein kinases.

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Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.


Plants harbor four families of kinases that have been implicated in Ca(2+) signaling (CDPKs, CRKs, CCaMKs, and SnRK3s). Although each family appears to respond to Ca(2+) via different mechanisms, they all utilize Ca(2+) sensors that bind Ca(2+) through multiple EF-hands. The CDPK (Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase) family is represented by the most genes, with 12 subfamilies comprised of 34 isoforms in Arabidopsis and 27 in rice. Some of the calcium-regulated kinases also show potential for regulation by lipid signals and kinase cascades. Thus, Ca(2+)-regulated kinases provide potential nodes of cross-talk for multiple signaling pathways that integrate Ca(2+) signals into all aspects of plant growth and development.

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