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Neurology. 2004 Sep 14;63(5):822-7.

Higher frequency of dementia in older HIV-1 individuals: the Hawaii Aging with HIV-1 Cohort.

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University of Hawaii NeuroAIDS Specialized Neuroscience Research Program, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI, USA.



Antiretroviral therapy has improved survival for HIV-1-infected individuals. The neuroepidemiologic implications of HIV-1 in an aging population are not well known, particularly the prevalence of HIV-associated dementia (HAD).


The authors report a baseline cross-sectional analysis of 202 HIV-1-seropositive individuals enrolled into one of two groups of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort: older (50 or more years old, n = 106) and younger (20 to 39 years old, n = 96). Neuropsychological, neurologic, medical, and laboratory data were obtained at enrollment. Participant cognitive status was classified (research case definitions) using American Academy of Neurology (1991) criteria in a consensus conference of physicians and neuropsychologists.


HAD was more frequent in older (25.2%) compared to younger (13.7%) individuals (p = 0.041) corresponding to an OR of 2.13 (95% CI: 1.02 to 4.44) for the older compared to the younger group. After adjusting for education, race, substance dependence, antiretroviral medication status, viral load, CD4 lymphocyte count, and Beck Depression Inventory score, the odds of having HAD among individuals in the older group was 3.26 (1.32 to 8.07) times that of the younger group.


Older age is associated with increased HAD in this HIV-1 cohort. Underlying mechanisms are unclear but do not appear related to duration of HIV-1 infection.

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