Send to

Choose Destination
Circulation. 2004 Sep 14;110(11 Suppl 1):II115-22.

Importance of mitral valve second-order chordae for left ventricular geometry, wall thickening mechanics, and global systolic function.

Author information

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif 94305-5247, USA.



Mitral valvular-ventricular continuity is important for left ventricular (LV) systolic function, but the specific contributions of the anterior leaflet second-order "strut" chordae are unknown.


Eight sheep had radiopaque markers implanted to silhouette the LV, annulus, and papillary muscles (PMs); 3 transmural bead columns were inserted into the mid-lateral wall between the PMs. The strut chordae were encircled with exteriorized wire snares. Three-dimensional marker images and hemodynamic data were acquired before and after chordal cutting. Preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and end-systolic elastance (E(es)) were calculated to assess global LV systolic function (n=7). Transmural strains were measured from bead displacements (n=4). Chordal cutting caused global LV dysfunction: E(es) (1.48+/-1.12 versus 0.98+/-1.30 mm Hg/mL, P=0.04) and PRSW (69+/-16 versus 60+/-15 mm Hg, P=0.03) decreased. Although heart rate and time from ED to ES were unchanged, time of mid-ejection was delayed (125+/-18 versus 136+/-19 ms, P=0.01). Globally, the LV apex and posterior PM tip were displaced away from the fibrous annulus and LV base-apex length increased at end-diastole and end-systole (all +1 mm, P<0.05). Locally, subendocardial end-diastolic strains occurred: Longitudinal strain (E22) 0.030+/-0.013 and radial thickening (E33) 0.081+/-0.041 (both P<0.05 versus zero). Subendocardial systolic shear strains were also perturbed: Circumferential-longitudinal "micro-torsion" (E12) (0.099+/-0.035 versus 0.075+/-0.025) and circumferential radial shear (E13) (0.084+/-0.023 versus 0.039+/-0.008, both P<0.05).


Cutting second-order chords altered LV geometry, remodeled the myocardium between the PMs, perturbed local systolic strain patterns affecting micro-torsion and wall-thickening, and caused global systolic dysfunction, demonstrating the importance of these chordae for LV structure and function.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center