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FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004 Oct 1;42(2):197-204.

Bacillus alcalophilus peptidoglycan induces IFN-alpha-mediated inhibition of vaccinia virus replication.

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Advanced Biosystems, Inc., George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd., MSN 1A8 Manassas, VA 20110, USA.


Bacterial products such as cell walls (CW) and peptidoglycan (PGN) are known to activate macrophages and NK cells during microbial infections. In this report, we demonstrated that whole CW and PGN of four Gram-positive bacteria are capable of enhancing the anti-poxviral activity of murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Among the major Bacillus alcalophilus CW components, PGN contributes the most to antiviral activity and induces remarkably higher levels of IFN-alpha. Anti-IFN-alpha/beta antibody, but not anti-IFN-gamma, anti-IFN-gamma receptor, or anti-IL-12, reversed the PGN-induced inhibition of vaccinia virus replication and reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. Our data thus suggest that PGN induce antiviral activity through IFN-alpha and to a lesser extent, through NO production.

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