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Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Nov;98(11):678-86.

The changing pattern of bloodstream infections associated with the rise in HIV prevalence in northeastern Thailand.

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Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rajvithi Road, Phayathai, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.


A survey of bloodstream infections was conducted in the large regional hospital in Ubon Ratchatani, northeastern Thailand between 1989 and 1998, during the onset of the HIV epidemic. The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella/Enterobacter and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemias remained constant whereas infections caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, non-typhoid Salmonellae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Penicillum marneffei and to a lesser extent Streptococcus pneumoniae all rose. Burkholderia pseudomallei infections were unrelated to HIV, whereas the other infections were associated directly with HIV. Group D non-typhoid Salmonellae bloodstream infections (mainly Salmonella enteritidis) rose coincident with the increase in HIV seroprevalence, and preceded the increase in the other HIV-associated infections. Other non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemias increased two years after the rise in group D infections, and invasive yeast infections increased four years later, coincident with the increase in AIDS. Increasing Group D non-typhoid Salmonella bloodstream infections are an early warning signal of an impending rise in AIDS.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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